Institutional Rules Explorer

Comparing policies across countries:  Public Own Old-Age Benefits
1992
1994
2003
2007
2008
2010
2014
2016
2017
Eligibility criteria
CNAV

  1. Full old age pension:
    • See Table for full benefit eligibility age without the coverage requirement. For coverage requirement, see Table, Table
    • See Table for earliest benefit eligibility age with coverage requirement. For coverage requirement, see Table, Table
    • Disabled (ages 55-59 provided that they have a permanent disability percentage of at least 50% or have official disabled worker status before December 31, 2015)
    • Arduous work (up to 2 years before full retirement age)
    • Working mother (specific qualification conditions – unknown)
    • Must stop work with "pre-retirement" firm
    • Earnings from other work are subject to special tax (proceeds to subsidize unemployment benefit program)

  2. Partial pension (reduced pension):
    • See Table for earliest benefit eligibility age with coverage requirement (with one quarter of insurance coverage)

Note: It is important to note that a quarter is not defined as a duration in the private sector: a worker acquires a quarter as soon as he or she has made contributions corresponding to 200 hours (150 since 2014) at the minimum wage. In several other schemes, particularly in the public sector, quarters correspond to periods actually worked. This is particularly important for women, as they more often work part-time. This calculation method offsets the impact of part- time work on the durations used to compute pensions.

ARRCO and AGIRC

The mandatory occupation pension is a point-based system: each year, an individual's contributions are converted to retirement pension points and added to his/her account. There is no minimum duration of contribution to receive benefits. The mandatory occupation pension is awarded at the full rate to individuals:
  • who have reached the minimum retirement age and have accrued the required number of quarters for entitlement to a full-rate pension; or
  • who have reached the full retirement age with no required length of employment.

The pension can be awarded at the full rate before the minimum retirement age if the applicant has been awarded his/her basic retirement pension (CNAV) on the basis of a long career or on the basis of permanent inability to work. Employment must cease.
Statutory retirement age
  • See Table for full benefit eligibility age without the coverage requirement
  • See Table for earliest benefit eligibility age with coverage requirement (with the required number of quarters of coverage in Table)
  • People entering the labor force before age 18 may begin receiving their benefit as early as age 56 if they can demonstrate a minimum length of insurance and contributions. The required minimum length of insurance varies depending on birth year, age at retirement, and age at which the retiree began working.
Benefit reduction for claiming early
No (CNAV); Yes (ARRCO and AGIRC)
Benefit increase for delayed claiming
Yes (CNAV); Yes (ARRCO and AGIRC)
1992
1999
2001
2004
2007
2017
Eligibility criteria
  1. Regular old-age pension
    • Full benefit eligibility age (see Table) with at least 5 years of contributions.

  2. Old-age pension for particularly long-term insured persons ("a special length of service pension")
    • Earliest full benefit eligibility age (see Table) with at least 45 years of contributions

  3. Old-age pension for women (born before 01/01/1952)
    • Earliest (full benefit) claiming age for women (see Table) with at least 15 years of contributions, with more than 10 years of paid contributions since age 40

  4. Old-age pension for the unemployed and in part-time employment (born before 01/01/1952)
    • Earliest (full benefit) claiming age (see Table), for individuals with at least 15 years of contributions and either 1) unemployed 1 year after age 58 and 6 months; or 2) in part-time work for at least 24 months before age 60 and have at least 8 years of contributions during the 10 most recent years before retirement.

  5. Old-age pension for long-term insured persons (partial pension)
    • Earliest claiming age (see Table) with at least 35 years of contributions

  6. Old-age pension for severely disabled persons
    • Full benefit eligibility age for severely disabled persons (see Table) with at least 35 years of contributions. For earliest claiming age, see Table

Note: Pensions on company plans usually commence at age 65, though this is likely in many cases to increase gradually to 67 as in the mandatory state pension.
Statutory retirement age
  • See Table for full benefit eligibility age (with at least 5 years of coverage)
  • See Table for earliest full benefit eligibility age (under special conditions)
  • See Table for earliest full benefit eligibility age (for persons born before 1/1/1952)

Note ( Table)
  • For the basic old age pension, the general qualifying period of five years must be observed.
  • For birth cohort 1947-1958, one month increase for every year.
  • For birth cohort 1959-1963, two months increase for every year.
Benefit reduction for claiming early
Yes
Benefit increase for delayed claiming
Yes
1992
1993
1998
2003
2014
2016
2017
Eligibility criteria
  1. The right to an old-age pension is acquired when the insured person meets both of the following conditions:
    • reaches the statutory retirement age
    • completes the required insurance period

  2. The required insurance period is at least:
    • women: 20 years of contributory and non-contributory periods;
    • men: 25 years of contributory and non-contributory periods.

  3. The insurance period is the sum of all contributory and non-contributory periods. Non-contributory periods cannot exceed 1/3 of the contributory periods:
    • Contributory periods: periods during which social insurance contributions are paid.
    • Non-contributory periods: periods during receipt of sickness benefit, parental leave, university study, caring for a dependent person, but these shall be limited to one-third of the contribution periods.

  4. Insured persons who have reached the statutory retirement age and have a shorter insurance period (up to 15 years for women and 20 years for men) than the required one may receive an old-age pension with reduced insurance period. The pension granted on the basis of the reduced insurance period is not increased by ZUS to the amount of the guaranteed minimum pension.
Statutory retirement age
See Table
  • Statutory retirement age gradually increased from 1 January 2013 by a month in January, May and September by Sep 2016.
  • The parliament decided in November 2016 to reverse the previous increase in retirement age, so that the long-term retirement age is 65 for men and 60 for women.
Benefit reduction for claiming early
No
Benefit increase for delayed claiming
Yes

Note: There is no bonus for delaying claiming. However, increased period of employment is reflected in pension formula (no maximum period; age specific g-value provides an almost actuarial bonus for delayed claiming). Factors that determine the level of benefit include:
  • For insured persons born before 1949: Amount of reference wage and number of years' insurance.
  • For insured persons born after 1948: Amount of remuneration subject to contributions throughout the insurance period and the age of the insured person at time of award of pension.
 United Kingdom
All details  
1992
1995
2002
2003
2005
2006
2007
2011
2016
2017
Eligibility criteria
Basic State Pension (BSP- Category A pension)

  1. For those reaching SRA before April 1975, there is one key condition (known as the "first contribution condition") that had to be satisfied if an individual was to be entitled to any BSP income at all: the individual had to have actually paid at least 156 weeks’ NICs of any class (see Table) before reaching SRA (104 weeks’ if the insurance for pension began before September 30, 1946). For those reaching SRA between April 1975 and April 5, 2010, the first contribution condition can be fulfilled if the individual has paid:
    • in any one tax year since 1978/79, class 1, 2 or 3 NICs (see Table) on earnings equal to 52 times the LEL (see Table); or
    • in any tax year from 1975/76 to 1977/78 inclusive, class 1, 2 or 3 NICs on earnings equal to 50 times the LEL; or
    • at least 50 flat-rate contributions at any time before April 6, 1975.

    Note ( Table): NICs fall into a number of classes. Class 1, 2 and 3 NICs paid are credited to an individual's NI account, which determines eligibility for certain benefits - including the state pension. Class 1A, 1B and 4 NIC do not count towards benefit entitlements but must still be paid if due.

  2. For those reaching SRA from April 6, 2010 onwards, this contribution condition does not apply. These individuals instead only have to meet the conditions on the total number of qualifying years.

Note: For a full BSP, the "requisite number of qualifying years" need to be fulfilled. The requisite number of qualifying years for those reaching SRA before April 6, 2010 is approximately 90% of working life but varies with the length of working life as shown in Table. The pension is proportionately reduced with a shorter coverage period. The basic pension is not payable if the insured is entitled to less than 25% of the full pension.
  • Working life is defined as the period from the tax year in which the individual reaches the age of 16 to the year before the one in which they reach SRA or die (inclusive). Those who were already aged over 16 on July 5, 1948 had their working life measured either from April 6, 1948 or from April 6 of the year between 1936 and 1948 when (and only if) contributions were first paid.

Additional State Pension

To qualify for the Additional State Pension, an individual must have paid class 1 NICs (See Table) on earnings greater than the annual lower earnings limit (LEL, see Table) in at least one tax year since 1978/79.

Note: Contracting out: Since an earnings-related element of the state pension system was first introduced in 1961, individuals have, in one form or another, been able to opt out of this if they had an alternative earnings-related pension arrangement of a sufficiently generous nature. This is known as "contracting out". A contracted-out employee pays lower NICs and forgoes some or all of their Additional State Pension entitlement.
  • From 1978, individuals were permitted to contract out of SERPS if their employer sponsored a contracted-out occupational pension scheme that promised to pay a guaranteed minimum pension (GMP). Such schemes were known as contracted-out salary-related (COSR) schemes. If an individual was part of a COSR scheme, then both employer and employee paid NICs at a lower contracted-out rate.
  • From 1988/89, employees could also contract out of the additional pension by joining an APP or a contracted-out money-purchase (COMP) scheme. The latter provides an individual with 'protected rights’, but the level of these rights is not guaranteed.
  • Individuals who contracted out of SERPS (and S2P) in years after 1997/98 will not have any entitlement to SERPS accruing for the years in which they were contracted out.
  • Individuals who contracted out of SERPS between April 1978 and April 1997 are entitled to some reduced payment from SERPS for that period. The reduced SERPS payment is equal to the gross SERPS entitlement (what the individual would have been entitled to from SERPS had they not contracted out) less a 'contracted-out deduction’ (COD). The COD is equal to the value of the GMP that the individual accrued during their period of contracted-out employment.
Statutory retirement age
The SRA is 65 for men and was 60 for women between 1948 and April 2010. Between April 2010 and March 2020, the SRA for women increased by one month every month (by date of birth) until the SRA for women reaches 65 (this was legislated in the Pensions Act 1995). See Table and Table.
Benefit reduction for claiming early
Early claiming not available
Benefit increase for delayed claiming
Yes
 United States
All details  
1992
1993
2000
2017
Eligibility criteria
40 quarters of qualifying coverage
Statutory retirement age
The original Social Security Act of 1935 set the minimum age for receiving full retirement benefits at 65. The 1983 Amendments phased in a gradual increase in the age for collecting full Social Security retirement benefits. The statutory retirement age (SRA) will increase from 65 to 67 over a 22-year period, with an 11-year hiatus at which the retirement age will remain at 66. See Table for details.
  • For persons born in 1938 or later, their Social Security benefit may be affected by a provision that raises the age at which full Social Security benefits are payable.
  • The age for collecting full Social Security retirement benefits will gradually increase from 65 to 67 over a 22-year period beginning in 2000 for those retiring at 62.
  • The earliest a person can start receiving reduced Social Security retirement benefits will remain age 62.
Benefit reduction for claiming early
Yes
Benefit increase for delayed claiming
Yes